"Charles Hodge was the principal of Princeton Theological Seminary between 1851 and 1878. He was one of the greatest exponents and defenders of historical Calvinism in America during the 19th century.... Dr. Hodge was a voluminous writer, and from the beginning to the end of his theological career his pen was never idle.... His magnum opus is the Systematic Theology (1871-1873), of 3 volumes and extending to 2,260 pages.... it must be remembered that 3,000 ministers of the Gospel passed under his instruction, and that to him was accorded the rare privilege, during the course of a long life, of achieving distinction as a teacher, exegete, preacher, controversialist, ecclesiastic, and systematic theologian.... He was conservative by nature, and his life was spent in defending the Reformed theology as set forth in the Westminster Confession of Faith and Larger and Westminster Shorter Catechisms. He was fond of saying that Princeton had never originated a new idea; but this meant no more than that Princeton was the advocate of historical Calvinism in opposition to the modified and provincial Calvinism of a later day. And it is true that Dr. Hodge must be classed among the great defenders of the faith, rather than among the great constructive minds of the Church. He had no ambition to be epoch-making by marking the era of a new departure. But he earned a higher title to fame in that he was the champion of his Church's faith during a long and active life, her trusted leader in time of trial, and for more than half a century the most conspicuous teacher of her ministry. The garnered wisdom of his life is given in his Systematic Theology, the greatest system of dogmatics in our language."
Here is a sample of Hodge's writing,
It may be naturally asked, why not take the truths as God has seen fit to reveal them, and thus save ourselves the trouble of showing their relation and harmony?
The answer to this question is, in the first place, that it cannot be done. Such is the constitution of the human mind that it cannot help endeavouring to systematize and reconcile the facts which it admits to be true. In no department of knowledge have men been satisfied with the possession of a mass of undigested facts. And the students of the Bible can as little be expected to be thus satisfied. There is a necessity, therefore, for the construction of systems of theology. Of this the history of the Church affords abundant proof. In all ages and among all denominations, such systems have been produced.
Second, a much higher kind of knowledge is thus obtained, than by the mere accumulation of isolated facts. It is one thing, for example, to know that oceans, continents, islands, mountains, and rivers exist on the face of the earth; but it is a much higherthing to know the causes which have determined the distribution of the land and water on the surface of the globe; the configuration of the earth; the effects of that configuration upon climate, on the races of plants and animals, on commerce, civilization, and the destiny of nations. It is by determining these causes that geography has been raised from a collection of facts to a highly important and elevated science. What is true of other sciences is true of theology. We cannot know what God has revealed in his Word unless we understand, at least in some good measure, the relation in which the separate truths therein contained stand to each other. It cost the Church centuries of study and controversy to solve the problem concerning the person of Christ; that is, to adjust and bring into harmonious arrangement all the facts which the Bible teaches on that subject.
Third, We have no choice in the matter. If we would discharge our duty as teachers and defenders of the truth, we must endeavour to bring all the facts of revelation into systematic order and mutual relation. It is only thus that we can satisfactorily exhibit their truth, vindicate them from objections, or bring them to bear in their full force on the mind of men.
Fourth, Such is evidently the will of God. He does not teach men astronomy or chemistry, but He gives them the facts out of which those sciences are constructed. Neither does He teach us systematic theology, but He gives us in the Bible the truths which, properly understood and arranged, constitute the science of theology. As the facts of nature are all related and determined by physical laws, so the facts of the Bible are all related and determined by the nature of God and of his creatures. And as He wills that men and women should study his works and discover their wonderful organic relation and harmonious combination, so it is his will that we should study his Word, and learn that, like the stars, its truths are not isolated points, but systems, cycles, and epicycles, in unending harmony and grandeur.
Volume one of Systematic Theology, a Christian classic by Charles Hodge contains:
CHAPTER I. ON METHOD
- 1. Theology a Science
- 2. Theological Method
- 3. The Speculative Method
- 4. The Mystical Method
- 5. The Inductive Method Theologian to be governed by same Rules as a Man of Science
- 6. The Scriptures contain all the Facts of Theology
CHAPTER II THEOLOGY
- 1. Its Nature Definitions of Theology Natural Theology
- 2. Facts of Nature reveal Scriptural Argument for Natural Theology
- 3. Insufficiency of Natural Theology
- 4. Christian Theology Theology Proper Anthropology Soteriology Eschatology Ecclesiology
CHAPTER III RATIONALISM
- 1. Meaning and Usage of the word 34.
- 2. Deistical Rationalism 35.
- 3. Second Form of Rationalism.--Its Nature, Refutation, History 39.
- 4. Dogmatism 44.
- 5. Proper Office of Reason in Matters of Religion 49. Reason necessary for the Reception of a Revelation.--Difference between Knowing and Understanding.--Reason must judge of the Credibility of a Revelation.--The Impossible cannot be believed.--Reason must judge of the Evidences of a Revelation 53.
- 6. Relation of Philosophy and Revelation 55.
- 7. Office of the Senses in Matters of Faith 59.
CHAPTER IV.. MYSTICISM..
- 1. Meaning of the Word 61. Philosophical Use of the Word 61. Mysticism as known in Church History 66.
- 2. Mysticism in the Early Church 69. Montanism.--The so-called Dionysius.--New Platonism 71.
- 3. Mysticism during the Middle Ages 73. General Characteristics of that Period.--Different Classes of Mediaeval .--Pantheistical Tendencies of Mysticism.--Evangelical Mystics 79.
- 4. Mysticism at and after the Reformation 79. Effect of the Reformation on the Popular Mind.--Mystics among the Reformers.--Schwenkfeld 82.
- 5. Quietism 84. General Character.--Leaders of the Movement.--Madame Guyon, Archbishop Fenelon 87.
- 6. The Quakers or Friends 88. Their Origin and Early History.--Their Doctrines.--The Doctrines of the Orthodox Friends.--Heterodox Friends.--Barclay's Views 93.
- 7. Objections to the Mystical Theory 97. It has no Foundation in Scripture.--It is contrary to Facts of Experience.--Productive of Evil 103.
ROMAN CATHOLIC DOCTRINE CONCERNING THE RULE OF FAITH.
- 1. Statement of the Doctrine 104.
- 2. Roman Catholic Doctrine concerning the Scriptures 104. Incompleteness of the Scriptures.--Obscurity of the Scriptures.--Latin Vulgate 107.
- 3. Tradition 108. Tridentine Doctrine 109.
- 4. The Office of the Church as a Teacher 111. The Organs of the Church in Teaching.--The Gallican Theory.--The. Transmontane 112.
- 5. Examination of the Romish Doctrine 113.
- 6. Examination of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome on Tradition 113. Difference between Tradition and the Analogy of Faith.--Common. Consent.--Tradition and Development.--The State of the. Question.--Arguments against the Doctrine of Tradition 121.
- 7. Office of the Church as a Teacher 129. Romish Doctrine on the Subject.--Romish Definition of the Church and its Foundation.--Romish Doctrine of Infallibility founded on a Wrong Theory of the Church.--The Doctrine of Infallibility Founded on the False Assumption of the Perpetuity of the Apostleship.--Modern Prelates not Apostles.--Infallibility founded on a False Interpretation of the Promise of Christ.--It is contradicted by Facts.--Recognition of an Infallible Church incompatible with either Religious or Civil Liberty 149.
CHAPTER VI.. THE PROTESTANT RULE OF FAITH..
- 1. The Statement of the Doctrine 151. The Canon 153.
- 2. The Scriptures given by Inspiration of God 153. The Nature of Inspiration.--Inspiration Supernatural.--Distinction between Revelation and Inspiration.--Inspired Men the Organs of God.--Proof of the Doctrine.--Argument from the Signification and Use of the Word Inspiration.-- From the Meaning of the Word Prophet. From the Declarations of Scripture.--Inspiration extends equally to all Parts of Scripture.--Extends to the Words as well as to the Thoughts.--Plenary Inspiration.--Objections considered 168.
- 3. Adverse Theories 172. Rationalistic Doctrine.--Schleiermacher's Theory.--Objections to that Theory.--Gracious Inspiration.--Partial Inspiration 181.
- 4. Completeness of Scripture 182.
- 5. Perspicuity of Scripture.--Right of Private Judgment 188.
- 6. Rules of Interpretation 187.
PART I.. THEOLOGY PROPER..
CHAPTER I.. ORIGIN OF THE IDEA OF GOD..
- 1. Knowledge of God as Innate 191. What is Meant by Innate Knowledge.--Proof that the Knowledge of God is Innate 194.
- 2. The Knowledge of God is not due to a Process of Reasoning 199.
- 3. The Knowledge of God is not due exclusively to Tradition 201.
- 4. Can the Existence of God be proved 202.
CHAPTER II.. THEISM..
- 1. Ontological Argument.--As presented by Anselm.--By Des Cartes 204. --By Dr. Samuel Clarke.--By Cousin 206.
- 2. Cosmological Argument 207. Principle of Sufficient Cause.--Nature of Causation.--Intuitive Conviction of the Necessity of a Cause for every Effect.--The World is an Effect.--Hume's Objection to the Cosmological Argument 211.
- 3. Teleological Argument 215. Its Nature.--Evidences of Design in the World 217.
- 4. Objections to the Teleological Argument 227. Denial of Final Causes.--Objections of Hume and Kant 228.
- 5. The Moral or Anthropological Argument 233. Nature of the Argument.--Argument from the Existence of the Mind.--From the Nature of the Soul.--From the Moral Nature of Man 237.
CHAPTER III.. ANTI--THEISTIC THEORIES..
- 1. What is Meant by Anti-Theism.--Atheism 241.
- 2. Polytheism 243.
- 3. Hylozoism 245.
- 4. Materialism 246.
- Doctrine of Epicurus.--
- Materialism in England during the Eighteenth Century.--
- Materialism in France during the Eighteenth Century.--
- Positivism 254.
- Scientific Materialism.--
- Leading Principles 262.
- Correlation of Physical and Vital Forces 264.
- Correlation of Physical and Mental Forces 271.
- Arguments against Materialism.--
- 1. Materialism Contradicts the Facts of Consciousness 276.
- 2. Contradicts the Truths of Reason 280.
- 3. Inconsistent with the Facts of Experience 282.
- 4. Materialism Atheistic 284.
- 5. The Materialistic Argument from Analogy invalid 285. Direct Argument against the Theory of the Correlation of Physical, Vital, and Mental Forces 291.
- 5. Pantheism.--Its three Principal Forms 299.
- General Principles of the System 300.
- History of Pantheism 309.
- Brahminical Pantheism 309.
- Original Religion of the Hindoos Pantheistic.--
- Relation of the Hindoo Pantheism to Polytheism.--
- Its Effect upon Religion 313.
- Its Effect upon Social Life 315.
- Grecian Pantheism.--
- Ionic School.--
- Eleatic School 319. Stoics.--
- Plato's Doctrine 322.
- Aristotle 326.
- Medieval Pantheism 328. Neo-Platonists.--John Scotus Erigena.--Modern Pantheism 330.
CHAPTER IV.. KNOWLEDGE OF GOD..
- 1. Can God be known 335. State of the Question.--God Inconceivable.--God Incomprehensible.--Our Knowledge of God partial 337. How do we form the idea of God?--Proof that this Method is trustworthy 339 .
- 2. God cannot be fully known 345. Sir William Hamilton's Argument against the Transcendentalists 346.
- 3. Sir William Hamilton's Doctrine 349.
- God an Object of Faith but not of Knowledge.--
- Different Kinds of Ignorance.--
- Proof that Sir William Hamilton denies that we can know God.--
- Arguments Against his Doctrine.--
- The Unthinkable or Impossible cannot be an object of Faith 352.
- Knowledge essential to Faith.--Our Knowledge not regulative 355.
- General Objections to Hamilton's Theory 359.
- Founded on a Wrong Definition of the Absolute and Infinite; on a Wrong Definition of knowledge.--
- Necessity of a Supernatural Revelation 364.
CHAPTER V.. THE NATURE AND ATTRIBUTES OF GOD..
- 1. Definitions of God 366.
- 2. Divine Attributes 368. Relation of the Attributes to the Essence of God.--The Divine Attributes do not differ merely in our Conceptions 371. The Divine Attributes cannot be resolved into mere Causality.--They differ virtualiter 373.
- 3. Classification of the Divine Attributes 374.
- 4. Spirituality of God 376. Consequences of admitting God to be a Spirit. 379.
- 5. Infinity 380. The Idea of Infinity not merely negative.--The Infinite is not the All.--Infinitude of God in relation to Space 383.
- 6. Eternity 386. Scriptural Doctrine.--Philosophical View.--Modern Philosophical Views 389.
- 7. Immutability 390. Philosophical Statement.--The Absolute Attributes of God not inconsistent with Personality 391.
- 8. Knowledge 393. Its Nature.--Possibility of Knowledge in God precluded by the Pantheistic Theory.--Knowledge and Power are not to be confounded.--The Doctrine of the Scriptures on the Subject.--The Objects of the Divine Knowledge.--The Actual and the Possible.--Scientia Media.--Origin of the Distinction 399. The Objections urged by Augustinians.--Foreknowledge 400. The Wisdom of God 401.
- 9. The Will of God 402. Meaning of the Term.--Freedom of the Divine Will.--Decretive and Preceptive Will.--Antecedent and Consequent Will.--Absolute and Conditional Will.--The Will of God as the Ground of Moral Obligation 405.
- 10. The Power of God 406. Origin of the Idea of Power.--Omnipotence.--Negation of Power.--Absolute Power. --Potentia Absoluta and Potentia Ordinata.--Will and Power not to be confounded 410.
- 11. Holiness of God 413. Grounds on which Moral Attributes are denied to God 414.
- 12. Justice 416. Meaning of the Word.--Justice in its relation to Sin.--Reformation of the Offender not the Primary Object of Punishment.--The Prevention of Crime not the Primary Object of Punishment.--Proof of the Scriptural Doctrine.-- Philosophical Views of the Nature of Justice 424.
- 13. The Goodness of God 427. The Scriptural Doctrine.--Benevolence.--Love.--The Existence of Evil.--Theories which involve the Denial of Sin.--Sin regarded as the Necessary Means of the Greatest Good.--The Doctrine that God cannot prevent Sin in a Moral System.--Scriptural Doctrine as to the Origin of Evil 435.
- 14. The Truth of God 436.
- 15. Sovereignty of God 439.
CHAPTER VI.. THE TRINITY..
- 1. Preliminary Remarks 442.
- 2. Biblical Form of the Doctrine 443. What that Form is.--Scriptural Proof of the Doctrine.--Progressive Character of Divine Revelation.--Formula of Baptism.--Apostolic Benediction 448.
- 3. The Transition Period 448. Necessity for a more Definite Statement of the Doctrine.--Conflict with Error.--Gnostics.--Platonizers.--Origen's Doctrine.--Sabellianism.--Arianism 452.
- 4. The Church Doctrine as presented by the Council of Nice 458. Objects for which that Council was convened.--Difference of Opinion among the Members of the Council.--Semi-Arians.--Orthodox.--Council of 457.
- 5. Points decided by the Councils of Nice and Constantinople 459. 1. As against Sabellianism.--2. As against the Arians and the Semi-Arians.--3. The Mutual Relations of the Persons of the Trinity 466.
- 6. Examination of the Nicene Doctrine 462. Subordination.--Eternal Generation.--Eternal Sonship 471. Objections urged against the Doctrine of Eternal Sonship 474. Relation of the Spirit to the other Persons of the Trinity 477.
- 7. Philosophical Forms of the Doctrine of the Trinity 478.
CHAPTER VII.. THE DIVINITY OF CHRIST..
- 1. Testimony of the Old Testament 483. Protevangelium.--Jehovah and the Angel Jehovah.--Evidence contained--1. In the Book of Genesis;
- 2. In the other Historical Books of the Old Testament;
- 3. The Book of Psalms.--
- 4. The Prophetical Books 492.
- 2. The General Characteristics of the New Testament Teaching concerning Christ 495.
- 1. The Sense in which Christ is called Lord 495.
- 2. Christ presented as the Object of our Religious Affections 497.
- 3. The Relations which Christ hears to his People and to the World.--his Authority as a Teacher.--His Control over all Creatures 501.
- 4. The Nature of his Promises 502.
- 5. His Control over Nature 503.
- 3. Particular Passages in the New Testament which teach the Divinity of Christ 504.
- 1. The writings of St. John.--John i. 14.--Other Passages in St. John's Gospel.--Our Lord's Last Discourse.--The Epistles of St. John.--The Apocalypse 511.
- 2. The Epistles of St. Paul.--The Epistle to the Romans.--Corinthians.--Galatians.--Ephesians.--Philippians.--Colossians.--Pastoral Epistles of St. Paul.--The Epistle to the Hebrews.--Other Sacred Writers of the New Testament 520.
CHAPTER VIII.. THE HOLY SPIRIT..
- 1. His Nature 522. His Personality.--Proof of his Personality.--Divinity of the Holy Spirit 527. 2. Office of the Holy Spirit--1. In Nature;
- 2. In the Work of Redemption.--The Revealer of all Divine Truth.--Applies to Men the Benefits of the Redemption of Christ 532.
- 3. History of the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit 532.
CHAPTER IX.. THE DECREES OF GOD..
- 1. The Nature of the Divine Decrees 535. The Glory of God the Final Cause of his Decrees.--Decrees reducible to One Purpose.--The Decrees of God are Immutable.--They are Free.--They are certainly Efficacious.--They relate to all Events.--Free Acts are foreordained 543.
- 2. Objections to the Doctrine of Divine Decrees 545. 1. Foreordination inconsistent with Free Agency.--
- 2. Foreordination of Sin inconsistent with Holiness.--
- 3. The Doctrine of Decrees destroys all Motives to Exertion.--
- 4. It is Fatalism 548.
CHAPTER X.. CREATION..
- 1. Different Theories concerning the Origin of the Universe 550.
- 1. The Purely Physical Theory.--
- 2. The Theories which assume Intelligence in Nature itself.--
- 3. Scriptural Doctrine 553.
- 2. Mediate and Immediate Creation 555.
- 3. Proof of the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 558.
- 4. Objections to the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 562.
- 5. Design of the Creation 565. Scriptural Doctrine as to the Design of the Creation 567 .
- 6. The Mosaic Account of the Creation 568. Objections to the Mosaic Account of the Creation--Geology and the. Bible 570.
CHAPTER XI.. PROVIDENCE..
- 1. Preservation 575. The Nature of Preservation.--Preservation is not a Continued Creation.--Objections to the Doctrine of a Continuous Creation.--Scriptural Doctrine on the Subject 581. 2. Government 581. Statement of the Doctrine.--Proof of the Doctrine..
- 1. The Evidence of the Operation of Mind everywhere 583.
- 2. From our Religious Nature 584.
- 3. From Predictions and Promises 585.
- 4. From Experience 586. The Scriptural Doctrine 586. The Bible teaches--
- 1. God's Providence over Nature;
- 2. Over the Animal World;
- 3. Over Nations;
- 4. Over Individuals, over the Free Acts of Men;
- 5. God's Providence in Relation to Sin 589.
- 3. Different Theories of the Divine Government 591.
- 1. The Deistical Theory of God's Relation to the World 591.
- 2. The Theory of Entire Dependence 592.
- 3. The Doctrine that there is no Efficiency except in Mind 595.
- 4. The Theory of Preestablished Harmony 597.
- 5. The Doctrine of Concursus 598. Remarks on the Doctrine of Concursus 603.
- 4. The Principles involved in the Scriptural Doctrine of Providence 605. The Providence of God over the Material Universe.--
- 1. The External World has a real Objective Existence.--
- 2. Matter is active.--The Laws of Nature.--The Uniformity of the Laws of Nature consistent with the Doctrine of Providence 609. God's Providence in Relation to Vital Processes 610. The Providence of God over Rational Creatures 613. Distinction between the Providential Efficiency of God and the Influences of the Holy Spirit 614.
CHAPTER XII.. MIRACLES..
- 1. Usage of the Word 617. Definition of a Miracle.--Objections to this Definition 618. Answer to the above Objections 620. The Doctrine of a Higher Law 624. Objections to the Doctrine of a Higher Law 629.
- 2. Possibility of Miracles 626.
- 3. Can a Miracle be known as such 629. Lying Wonders.--Insufficiency of Human Testimony 633.
- 4. The Value of Miracles as a Proof of Divine Revelation 635.
CHAPTER XIII.. ANGELS..
- 1. Their Nature 637.
- 2. Their State 639.
- 3. Their Employments 639.
- 4. Evil Angels 643. Power and Agency of Evil Spirits.--Demoniacal Possessions 646.
Volume two of Systematic Theology, a Christian classic by Charles Hodge contains:
CHAPTER I.. ORIGIN OF MAN. .
- 1. Scriptural Doctrine 3.
- 2. Anti-Scriptural Theories 4. Heathen Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation. - Modern Doctrine of Spontaneous Generation 5. Theories of Development. - Lamarck. - Vestiges of Creation. - Darwin. - Remarks on the Darwinian Theory. - Atheistic. - Mere Hypothesis 19. Theories of the Universe. - Darwin. - J. J. Murphy. - Owen. - Common Doctrine. - Admitted Difficulties in the way of the Darwinian Theory. - 29. Pangenesis 32.
- 3. Antiquity of Man 33. Lake Dwellings. - Fossil Human Remains.- Human Bones found with those of Extinct Animals. - Flint Instruments. - Races of Men. - Ancient Monuments 39.
CHAPTER II.. NATURE OF MAN..
- 1. Scriptural Doctrine 42. Truths assumed in Scriptures. - Relation of the Soul and Body. - Realistic Dualism 46.
- 2. Trichotomy 47. Anti-Scriptural. - Doubtful Passages 48.
- 3. Realism 51. Its General Character.-Generic Humanity.- Objections to Realism. - From Consciousness. - Contrary to Scriptures. - Inconsistent with Doctrine of the Trinity, and of the Person of Christ 60.
- 4. Another Form of the Realistic Theory 61.
CHAPTER III.. ORIGIN OF THE SOUL..
- 1. Theory of Pre-existence 65.
- 2. Traducianism 68.
- 3. Creationism 70. Arguments from the Nature of the Soul 71. 4. Concluding Remarks 72.
CHAPTER IV.. UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE..
- 1. Idea of Species 78. General Characteristics. - Definitions 79.
- 2. Evidences of the Identity of Species 82. Organic Structure. - Physiology. -Psychology 85.
- 3. Application of these Criteria to Man 86. The Evidence Cumulative 88.
- 4. Philological and Moral Argument 88. Brotherhood of Man 90.
CHAPTER V.. ORIGINAL STATE OF MAN..
- 1. Scriptural Doctrine 92.
- 2. Man created in the Image of God 96.
- 3. Original Righteousness 99.
- 4. Dominion over the Creatures 102.
- 5. Doctrine of Romanists 103.
- 6. Pelagian and Rationalistic Doctrine 106. Immanent Dispositions may have Moral Character. - General Judgment of Men on this Point.- Argument from Scripture, and from the Faith of the Church. - The Character of Dispositions depends on their Nature.- Objections considered. - Pelagians teach that Man was created Mortal 115.
CHAPTER VI.. COVENANT OF WORKS..
- 1. God made a Covenant with Adam 117.
- 2. The Promise 118.
- 3. The Condition 119.
- 4. The Penalty 120.
- 5. The Parties 121.
- 6. The Perpetuity of the Covenant 122.
CHAPTER VII.. THE FALL..
- 1. Scriptural Account. The Tree of Life. The Tree of Knowledge The Serpent. The Temptation. Effects of the First Sin 123.
CHAPTER VIII.. SIN..
- 1. Nature of the Question 130.
- 2. Philosophical Theories 132. Limitation of Being. Leibnitz‚s Theory. Antagonism. Schleiermacher's Theory. The Sensuous Theory. Selfishness 144. Theological Theories..
- 3. Doctrine of the Early Church 150.
- 4. Pelagian Theory 152. Arguments against it 155.
- 5. Augustine's Doctrine 157. Philosophical Element of his Doctrine. Why he made Sin a Negation. The. Moral Element of his Doctrine 159.
- 6. Doctrine of the Church of Rome 164. Diversity of Doctrine in the Latin Church. Semi-Pelagian. Anselm. Abelard. Thomas Aquinas. The Scotists 173. Tridentine Doctrine on Original Sin 174. The true Doctrine of the Church of Rome 177.
- 7. Protestant Doctrine of Sin 180. Sin a specific Evil. Has relation to Law. That Law the Law of God. Extent of the Law's Demands. Sin not confined to Acts of the Will. Consists in want of Conformity to the Law of God. Includes Guilt and Pollution 188.
- 8. Effects of Adam's Sin on his Posterity 192.
- 9. Immediate Imputation 192. Statement of the Doctrine. Ground of the Imputation of Adam's Sin. Adam the Federal Head of his Race. The Representative Principle in the Scriptures. This Principle involved in other Doctrines. Argument from Romans v. 12-21. From General Consent. Objections 204.
- 10. Mediate Imputation 205. Origin of the Doctrine in the French Church . Held by Theologians in other Churches. Objections. Theory of Propagation 214.
- 11. Pre-existence 214.
- 12. Realistic Theory 216. President Edwards' Theory. Proper Realistic Theory. Objections 219.
- 13. Original Sin 227. Its Nature. Proof of the Doctrine. From the Universality of Sin. Fromthe entire Sinfulness of Man. From the incorrigible Nature of Sin. From its early Manifestations. Evasions of the foregoing Arguments. Declarations of Scripture. Argument from the necessity of Redemption. From the necessity of Regeneration. From Infant Baptism. From the Universality of Death. From the common Consent of Christians 241. Objections. -Men responsible only for Voluntary Acts. Inconsistent with the justice of God. Makes God the Author of Sin. Inconsistent with Free Agency 254.
- 14. Seat of Original Sin 254. The whole Soul its Seat 255.
- 15. Inability 257. Doctrine as stated in the Protestant Symbols. The Nature of the Sinner's Inability 260. Inability not mere Disinclination. Arises from the want of Spiritual Discernment. Asserted only in reference to "Things of the Spirit." In what sense Natural. In what sense Moral. Objections to the popular Distinction between Natural and Moral Ability 265. Proof of the Doctrine 267. The Negative Argument. Involved in the Doctrine of Original Sin. Argument from the Necessity of the Spirit's Influence. From Experience. Objections. Inconsistent with Moral Obligation. Destroys the Motives to Exertion. Encourages Delay 276.
CHAPTER IX.. FREE AGENCY..
- 1. Different Theories of the Will 280. Necessity. Contingency. Certainty 284.
- 2. Definition of Terms 288. Will. Motive. Cause. Liberty. Liberty and Ability. Self-determination and Self-determination of the Will 294.
- 3. Certainty consistent with Liberty 295. Points of Agreement. Arguments for the Doctrine of Certainty. >From the Foreknowledge of God. From Foreordination. From Providence. From the Doctrines of Grace. From Consciousness. From the Moral Character of Volitions. From the Rational Nature of Man. From the Doctrine of Sufficient Cause 306.
PART III.. SOTERIOLOGY..
CHAPTER I.. PLAN OF SALVATION..
- 1. God has such a Plan 313. Importance of knowing it. Means of knowing it 315.
- 2. Supralapsarianism 316.
- 3. Infralapsarianism 319.
- 4. Hypothetical Redemption 321. Objections to that Scheme 323.
- 5. The Lutheran Doctrine as to the Plan of Salvation 324.
- 6. The Remonstrant Doctrine 327.
- 7. The Wesleyan Doctrine 329.
- 8. The Augustinian Doctrine 331. Preliminary Remarks. Statement of the Doctrine. Proof of the Doctrine 334. Argument from the Facts of Providence. From the Facts of Scripture 339. The Relation of God to his Rational Creatures. Man a Fallen Race. Work of the Spirit. Election is to Holiness. Gratuitous Nature of Salvation. Paul's Argument in the Ninth Chapter of Romans. Argument from Experience 344. Express Declarations of Scripture. The Words of Jesus 346.
- 9. Objections to the Augustinian Doctrine 349. The Objections shown to bear against the Providence of God. Founded on our Ignorance. Same Objections urged against the Teachings of the Apostles 352.
CHAPTER II.. COVENANT OF GRACE..
- 1. The Plan of Salvation is a Covenant 354.
- 2. Different Views of the Nature of that Covenant 355. Pelagian View. Remonstrant View. Wesleyan Arminian View. Lutheran View. Augustinian Doctrine 356.
- 3. Parties to the Covenant 357. Distinction between the Covenant of Redemption and the Covenant of Grace 358.
- 4. Covenant of Redemption 359.
- 5. Covenant of Grace 362.
- 6. Identity of the Covenant under all Dispensations 366. Promise of Eternal Life made before the Advent of Christ. Christ the Redeemer under all Dispensations. Faith the Condition of Salvation from the Beginning 371.
- 7. Different Dispensations 373. From Adam to Abraham. Abraham to Moses.-Moses to Christ. The Gospel. Dispensation 378.
CHAPTER III.. THE PERSON OF CHRIST..
- 1. Preliminary Remarks 378.
- 2. Scriptural Facts concerning the Person of Christ 380. He is truly Man. He is truly God. He is one Person Proof of the Doctrine. Proof' of the several Points separately. From the current Representations of Scripture. From particular Passages of Scripture. St. John's Gospel i. 1-14 1 John i. 1-3. Romans i. 2-5. 1 Timothy iii. 16. Philippians ii. 6-11. Hebrews ii. 14 384.
- 3. The Hypostatical Union 387. Two Natures in Christ. Meaning of the Word Nature. Two Natures united but not confounded. The Attributes of one Nature not transferred to the other. The Union is a Personal Union 390.
- 4. Consequences of the Hypostatical Union 392. Communion of Attributes. The Acts of Christ. The Man Christ Jesus the Object of Worship. Christ can sympathize with his People. The Incarnate Logos the Source of Life. The Exaltation of the Human Nature of Christ 397.
- 5. Erroneous Doctrines on the Person of Christ. Ebionites. Gnostics. Apollinarian Doctrine. Nestorianism. Eutychianism. Monothelite Controversy 404.
- 6. Doctrine of the Reformed Churches 405.
- 7. Lutheran Doctrine 407. Different Views among the Lutherans. Remarks on the Lutheran Doctrine 418.
- 8. Later Forms of the Doctrine 418. Socinianism. Swedenborg. Dr. Isaac Watts. Objections to Dr. Watts' Theory 427.
- 9. Modern Forms of the Doctrine 428. Pantheistical Christology. Theistical Christology. The Doctrine of. Kenosis. Ebrard 434. Gess 435. Remarks on the Doctrine of Kenosis 437. Schleiermacher's Christology 441. Objections to Schleiermacher's Theory. Founded on Pantheistical Principles. Involves Rejection of the Doctrine of the Trinity. False Anthropology. Perverts the Plan of Salvation 450.
CHAPTER IV.. THE MEDIATORIAL WORK OF CHRIST..
- 1. Christ the only Mediator 455.
- 2. Qualifications for the Work 456.
- 3. Threefold Office of Christ 459.
CHAPTER V.. PROPHETIC OFFICE..
- 1. Its Nature 462.
- 2. How Christ executes the Office of a Prophet 463.
CHAPTER VI.. PRIESTLY OFFICE..
- 1. Christ is truly a Priest 464.
- 2. Christ is our only Priest 466.
- 3. Definition of Terms 468. Atonement. Satisfaction. Penalty. Vicarious. Guilt. Redemption. Expiation. Propitiation 478.
CHAPTER VII.. SATISFACTION OF CHRIST..
- 1. Statement of the Doctrine 480.
- 2. The Sense in which the Work of Christ was a Satisfaction 482.
- 3. The Doctrine of the Scotists and Remonstrants 485.
- 4. Christ's Satisfaction rendered to Justice 489.
- 5. Christ's Work a Satisfaction to Law 493.
- 6. Proof of the Doctrine as above stated 495. Argument from Christ's Priestly Office. From the Sacrificial Character of His Death. Proof of the Expiatory Character of the Sacrifices for Sin. Argument from the Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah. Passages in the New Testament in which Christ's Work is set forth as a Sacrifice, Romans iii. 25; Hebrews x. 10; 1 John ii. 2; 1 Peter ii. 24 512. Argument from the Nature of Redemption 516. Redemption from the Penalty of the Law. From the Law itself. >From the Power of Sin. From the Power of Satan. Final Redemption from all Evil. Argument from Related Doctrines 520. Argument from Religious Experience of Believers 523.
- 7. Objections 527. Philosophical Objections. Objections drawn from the Feelings. Moral Objections. Objections urged by the Modern German Theologians 532. Answer to the Theory of these Writers 535. Popular Objections 539.
CHAPTER VIII.. FOR WHOM DID CHRIST DIE.
- 1. State of the Question 544.
- 2. Proof of the Augustinian Doctrine 546.
- 1. From the Nature of the Covenant of Redemption.
- 2. Election.
- 3. Express Declaration of the Scriptures.
- 4. From the Special Love of God.
- 5. From the Believer's Union with Christ.
- 6. From the Intercession of Christ.
- 7. Church Doctrine embraces all the Facts of the Case 553. Objections. From the Universal Offer of the Gospel. From certain Passages of Scripture 558.
CHAPTER IX.. THEORIES OF THE ATONEMENT..
- 1. The Orthodox View 563.
- 2. Doctrine of some of the Early Fathers 564.
- 3. Moral Theory 566. Objections to that Theory 571.
- 4. Governmental Theory 573. Remonstrant Doctrine 575. Supernaturalists 576. Objections to Governmental Theory 578.
- 5. Mystical Theory 581. Early Mystics. Mystics of the Time of the Reformation. Osiander. Schwenkfeld. Oetinger. The Modern Views 588.
- 6. Concluding Remarks 589.
CHAPTER X.. INTERCESSION OF CHRIST..
- 1. Christ our Intercessor 592.
- 2. Nature of his Intercession 593.
- 3. Its Objects 594.
- 4. The Intercession of Saints 594.
CHAPTER XI.. KINGLY OFFICE OF CHRIST..
- 1. The Church the Kingdom of God 596.
- 2. Christ truly a King 597.
- 3. Nature of the Kingdom of Christ 599. His Dominion over the Universe. His Spiritual Kingdom. His Visible Kingdom. Nature of that Kingdom 604.
- 4. The Kingdom of Glory 608.
CHAPTER XII.. THE HUMILIATION OF CHRIST..
- 1. Includes his Incarnation 610.
- 2. His Being made under the Law 612.
- 3. His Sufferings and Death 614.
- 4. His Enduring the Wrath of God 614.
- 5. His Death and Burial 615. The "Descensus ad Inferos." The Lutheran and Modern Doctrines of the Humiliation of Christ 621.
CHAPTER XIII.. THE EXALTATION OF CHRIST..
- 1. His Resurrection 626.
- 2. His Ascension 630.
- 3. His Session at the Right Hand of God 635.
CHAPTER XIV.. VOCATION..
- 1. Scriptural Usage of the Word 639.
- 2. External Call 641.
- 3. Common Grace 654. Lutheran Doctrine. Rationalistic Doctrine 657. Proof of the Inward Call of the Spirit as distinct from the Truth 660. This Influence may be without the Word. The Work of the Spirit distinct from Providential Efficiency 665. An Influence of the Spirit Common to all Men. Effects of Common Grace 670.
- 4. Efficacious Grace 675. Why Efficacious. Not simply ab eventu. Not from its Congruity 677. The Augustinian Doctrine 680. Statement of the Doctrine. The Main Principle involved 682. It is the Almighty Power of God. Hence
- 1. It is Mysterious and Peculiar..
- 2. Distinct from Common Grace.
- 3. Distinct from Moral Suasion.
- 4. Acts immediately. In what Sense Physical.
- 5. It is Irresistible.
- 6. The Soul is Passive in Regeneration.
- 7. Regeneration Instantaneous.
- 8. It is an Act of Sovereign Grace 688.
- 5. Proof of the Doctrine 689.
- 1. Common Consent.
- 2. Analogy.
- 3. Ephesians iii. 17, 19.
- 4. General Teachings of Scripture.
- 5. Nature of Regeneration.
- 6. Argument from related Doctrines.
- 7. From Experience 706.
- 6. Objections 709.
- 7. History of the Doctrine of Grace 710. Doctrine of the Early Church. Pelagian Doctrine. Semi-Pelagian. Scholastic Period. Synergistic Controversy. Controversies in the Reformed Church. Hypothetical Universalism. Supernaturalism and Rationalism 721.
Volume three of Systematic Theology, a Christian classic by Charles Hodge contains:
CHAPTER XV.. REGENERATION
- 1. Usage of the word Regeneration
- 2. Nature of Regeneration Not a Change in the Substance of the Soul Not an Act of the Soul Doctor Emmon's Doctrine Professor Finney's Doctrine Doctor Nathaniel Taylor's View. Not a Change in any one Faculty Not merely Illumination. Not a Change of the Higher Powers of the Soul exclusively Modern Speculative Views Ebrard's Doctrine. -- Delitzsch's Doctrine 25. Doctrine of the Latin Church 27. Doctrine of the Church of England 28.
- 3. The Evangelical Doctrine 29. Exposition of the Doctrine 30. An Act of Divine Power 31. In the Subjective Sense of the Word not an Act 32. It is a New Principle of Life. -- A New Birth. -- A New Heart. -- The whole Soul the Subject of it 36.
- 4. Objections to the Evangelical Doctrine 37.
CHAPTER XVI.. FAITH..
- 1. Preliminary Remarks 41.
- 2. Psychological Nature of Faith 42. Primary Idea of Faith is Trust. -- More limited Sense of the Word Definitions of Faith founded on its Subjective Nature, --. First, a Degree of Conviction less than Knowledge, but stronger than Opinion 46. Second, a Conviction determined by the Will 49. Definition founded on the Objects of Faith. -- Conviction of the Truth of Things not seen 53. Definitions founded on the Kind of Evidence on which the Conviction rests, --. First, a Conviction founded on Feeling 52. Second, a Conviction founded on Testimony 60.
- 3. Different Kinds of Faith 67.
- 4. Relation of Faith and Knowledge 75.
- 5. Relation of Faith and Feeling 88.
- 6. Relation of Faith and Love 93.
- 7. Object of Saving Faith 95.
- . Effects of Faith 104. Assurance 106. Certainty of Salvation 110.
CHAPTER XVII.. JUSTIFICATION..
- 1. Symbolical Statement of the Doctrine 114.
- 2. Justification a forensic Act 118. Proof of the Doctrine 120. Calvin's Doctrine 133.
- 3. Works not the Ground of Justification 134. Romish Doctrine. -- Remonstrant Doctrine. -- Protestant Doctrine 137.
- 4. The Righteousness of Christ the Ground of Justification 141.
- 5. Imputation of Righteousness 144.
- 6. Proof of the Doctrine of Imputation 150.
- 7. Consequences of the Imputation of Christ's Righteousness 161.
- 8. Relation of Faith to Justification 165. Romish Doctrine. -- Remonstrant Doctrine. -- Protestant Doctrine 170.
- 9. Objections to the Protestant Doctrine of Justification 171.
- 10. Departures from the Protestant Doctrine 179. Osiander. -- Stancarus. -- Piscator. -- Arminian Doctrine 185.
- 11. Modern Views on Justification 195. Rationalistic Theories. -- Philosophical Theories. -- Speculative Theologians 199.
CHAPTER XVIII.. SANCTIFICATION..
- 1. Its Nature 213. Supernatural 213.
- 2. Wherein it consists 220.
- 3. Method of 226.
- 4. Fruits of 231. Nature of Good Works. -- Romish Doctrine. -- Works of Supererogation. -- Precepts and Counsels 235.
- 5. Necessity of Good Works 238. Antinomianism 241.
- 6. Relation of Good Works to Reward 241.
- 7. Perfectionism 245.
- 8. Theories of Perfectionism 256. Pelagian. -- Romish. -- Arminian. -- Oberlin 251.
CHAPTER XIX.. THE LAW..
- 1. Preliminary Principles 259. Theism the Foundation of the Moral Law. -- Christian Liberty in Matters of Indifference. -- Scriptural Use of the Word "Law." -- Different Kinds of Laws. -- Perfection of the Law. -- The Decalogue. -- Rules of Interpretation 272.
- 2. Division of the Contents of the Decalogue 272.
- 3. The Preface to the Ten Commandments 275.
- 4. The First Commandment 277.
- 5. Invocation of Saints 281. Mariolatry 285.
- 6. The Second Commandment 290. Worship of Images forbidden. -- Doctrine and Usage of the Romish Church 296. Relics 300.
- 7. The Third Commandment 305. Import of the Command. -- Oaths. -- Romish Doctrine. -- Vows. -- Monastic Vows 319.
- 8. The Fourth Commandment 321. Its Design. -- Origin and Perpetual Obligation of the Sabbath 323. How it is to be sanctified 336. Sunday Laws 340.
- 9. The Fifth Commandment.-- Its Design 348. Filial Relation. -- Parental Duties. -- The Obedience due to Civil Magistrates 356. Obedience to the Church 360.
- 10. The Sixth Commandment. -- Its Design 362. Capital Punishment 363. Self-defence. -- War. -- Suicide. -- Duelling 368.
- 11. The Seventh Commandment 368. Celibacy. -- Marriage a Divine Institution 376. As a Civil Institution 377. Monogamy 389. Converted Polygamists 387. Divorce 391. Doctrine of the Church of Rome. -- In what Sense Marriage is a Sacrament 398. Laws of Protestant Countries 401. The Social Evil 406. Prohibited Marriages 407.
- 12. The Eighth Commandment 421. Foundation of the Right of Property. -- Community of Goods. --Communism and Socialism. -- International Society -- Violations of the Eighth Commandment 434.
- 13. The Ninth Commandment 437. Importance of Truth. -- Detraction.-- Falsehood. -- Mental Reservation. -- Pious Frauds. -- False Miracles 452.
- 14. The Tenth Commandment 463.
CHAPTER XX.. THE MEANS OF GRACE..
- 1. The Word of God 466. Office of the Word as a Means of Grace. -- Lutheran Doctrine 479.
- 2. The Sacraments 485. Their Nature. -- Usage of the Word. -- Theological Definition. -- Lutheran Doctrine. -- Romish Doctrine. -- Remonstrant Doctrine 490.
- 3. Number of the Sacraments 492.
- 4. Efficacy of the Sacraments 498. Zwinglian and Remonstrant Doctrine. -- Reformed Doctrine. -- Lutheran Doctrine. -- Romish Doctrine. -- The "Ex Opere Operato" Doctrine 509.
- 5. The Necessity of the Sacraments 516.
- 6. The Validity of the Sacraments 523.
- 7. Baptism 526. Its Mode. -- Use of the Word 526.
- 8. The Formula of Baptism 539.
- 9. The Subjects of Baptism. -- Qualifications for Adult Baptism 541.
- 10. Infant Baptism 548. Visible Church is a Divine Institution. -- It does not consist exclusively of the Regenerate. -- The Commonwealth of Israel was the Church. -- The Church under the Christian Dispensation Identical with that of the Old. -- The Terms of Admission into the Church the Same under both Dispensations. -- Infants were Members of the Church under the Old Testament Economy. -- They are still Members of the Church. -- They need and are capable of receiving the Benefits of Redemption 553.
- 11. Whose Children are entitled to Baptism 558. Usage of the Church of Rome. -- Theories adopted by many Protestants. -- President Edwards's Doctrine. -- The Half-Way Covenant 567. Puritan Doctrine. -- Usage of the Reformed Churches 573.
- 12. Efficacy of Baptism 579. Doctrine of the Reformed Churches. -- Baptismal Regeneration 591.
- 13. Lutheran Doctrine of Baptism 604.
- 14. Doctrine of the Church of Rome 605.
- 15. The Lord's Supper 511. Of Perpetual Obligation 511. Elements to be Used. -- Sacramental Actions. -- Its Design. -- Qualifications for the Lord's Supper 629.
- 16. Doctrine of the Reformed Churches 626. Zwinglian View. -- Calvin's Doctrine. -- The Form of Statement in which the Zwinglians and Calvinists Agree 631. The Sense in which Christ is Present in the Sacrament 637. Manducation 643. What is Received in the Lord's Supper 645. The Efficacy of the Lord's Supper 647.
- 17. Modern Views on this Sacrament 650.
- 18. The Lutheran Doctrine 661.
- 19. Doctrine of the Church of Rome 677. Transubstantiation. -- Withholding the Cup from the Laity 685. The Lord's Supper as a Sacrifice 685. 20. Prayer 692. The Object of Prayer 700. Requisites for Acceptable Prayer 701. Different Kinds of Prayer 705. Public Prayer 707. Power of Prayer 708.
CHAPTER I.. STATE OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH..
- 1. Protestant Doctrine 718. The Old Testament Doctrine on the Future State 716. Intermediate State 724.
- 2. Sleep of the Soul 730.
- 3. Patristic Doctrine of the Intermediate State 733.
- 4. Doctrine of the Church of Rome 743. Purgatory 749.
CHAPTER II.. RESURRECTION..
- 1. Scriptural Doctrine 771.
- 2. History of the Doctrine 781.
CHAPTER III.. SECOND ADVENT..
- 1. Preliminary Remarks 790.
- 2. The Church Doctrine 792.
- 3. Personal Advent of Christ 792.
- 4. Calling of the Gentiles 800.
- 5. Conversion of the Jews 805. Are the Jews to be Restored to their Own Land 807.
- 6. Antichrist 812. The Papacy the Antichrist of St. Paul.-- The Antichrist of Daniel 823. The Antichrist of the Apocalypse 825. Roman Catholic Doctrine of Antichrist 831.
CHAPTER IV.. CONCOMITANTS OF THE SECOND ADVENT..
- 1. The General Resurrection 837.
- 2. The Final Judgment 844.
- 3. The End of the World 851.
- 4. The Kingdom of Heaven 855.
- 5. Theory of the Premillennial Advent 861. Did the Apostles expect the Second Advent in their Day 867.
- 6. Future Punishment 868. Duration of Future Punishment.-- Objections to the Scriptural Doctrine 878.
Also includes a comprehensive index.