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Systematic Theology (Volume 1 of 3) by Charles Hodge

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Systematic Theology (Volume 1)
Charles Hodge
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Volume one of Systematic Theology, a Christian classic by Charles Hodge contains:



  • 1. Theology a Science
  • 2. Theological Method
  • 3. The Speculative Method
  • 4. The Mystical Method
  • 5. The Inductive Method Theologian to be governed by same Rules as a Man of Science
  • 6. The Scriptures contain all the Facts of Theology


  • 1. Its Nature Definitions of Theology Natural Theology
  • 2. Facts of Nature reveal Scriptural Argument for Natural Theology
  • 3. Insufficiency of Natural Theology
  • 4. Christian Theology Theology Proper Anthropology Soteriology Eschatology Ecclesiology


  • 1. Meaning and Usage of the word 34.
  • 2. Deistical Rationalism 35.
  • 3. Second Form of Rationalism.--Its Nature, Refutation, History 39.
  • 4. Dogmatism 44.
  • 5. Proper Office of Reason in Matters of Religion 49. Reason necessary for the Reception of a Revelation.--Difference between Knowing and Understanding.--Reason must judge of the Credibility of a Revelation.--The Impossible cannot be believed.--Reason must judge of the Evidences of a Revelation 53.
  • 6. Relation of Philosophy and Revelation 55.
  • 7. Office of the Senses in Matters of Faith 59.


  • 1. Meaning of the Word 61. Philosophical Use of the Word 61. Mysticism as known in Church History 66.
  • 2. Mysticism in the Early Church 69. Montanism.--The so-called Dionysius.--New Platonism 71.
  • 3. Mysticism during the Middle Ages 73. General Characteristics of that Period.--Different Classes of Mediaeval .--Pantheistical Tendencies of Mysticism.--Evangelical Mystics 79.
  • 4. Mysticism at and after the Reformation 79. Effect of the Reformation on the Popular Mind.--Mystics among the Reformers.--Schwenkfeld 82.
  • 5. Quietism 84. General Character.--Leaders of the Movement.--Madame Guyon, Archbishop Fenelon 87.
  • 6. The Quakers or Friends 88. Their Origin and Early History.--Their Doctrines.--The Doctrines of the Orthodox Friends.--Heterodox Friends.--Barclay's Views 93.
  • 7. Objections to the Mystical Theory 97. It has no Foundation in Scripture.--It is contrary to Facts of Experience.--Productive of Evil 103.



  • 1. Statement of the Doctrine 104.
  • 2. Roman Catholic Doctrine concerning the Scriptures 104. Incompleteness of the Scriptures.--Obscurity of the Scriptures.--Latin Vulgate 107.
  • 3. Tradition 108. Tridentine Doctrine 109.
  • 4. The Office of the Church as a Teacher 111. The Organs of the Church in Teaching.--The Gallican Theory.--The. Transmontane 112.
  • 5. Examination of the Romish Doctrine 113.
  • 6. Examination of the Doctrine of the Church of Rome on Tradition 113. Difference between Tradition and the Analogy of Faith.--Common. Consent.--Tradition and Development.--The State of the. Question.--Arguments against the Doctrine of Tradition 121.
  • 7. Office of the Church as a Teacher 129. Romish Doctrine on the Subject.--Romish Definition of the Church and its Foundation.--Romish Doctrine of Infallibility founded on a Wrong Theory of the Church.--The Doctrine of Infallibility Founded on the False Assumption of the Perpetuity of the Apostleship.--Modern Prelates not Apostles.--Infallibility founded on a False Interpretation of the Promise of Christ.--It is contradicted by Facts.--Recognition of an Infallible Church incompatible with either Religious or Civil Liberty 149.


  • 1. The Statement of the Doctrine 151. The Canon 153.
  • 2. The Scriptures given by Inspiration of God 153. The Nature of Inspiration.--Inspiration Supernatural.--Distinction between Revelation and Inspiration.--Inspired Men the Organs of God.--Proof of the Doctrine.--Argument from the Signification and Use of the Word Inspiration.-- From the Meaning of the Word Prophet. From the Declarations of Scripture.--Inspiration extends equally to all Parts of Scripture.--Extends to the Words as well as to the Thoughts.--Plenary Inspiration.--Objections considered 168.
  • 3. Adverse Theories 172. Rationalistic Doctrine.--Schleiermacher's Theory.--Objections to that Theory.--Gracious Inspiration.--Partial Inspiration 181.
  • 4. Completeness of Scripture 182.
  • 5. Perspicuity of Scripture.--Right of Private Judgment 188.
  • 6. Rules of Interpretation 187.



  • 1. Knowledge of God as Innate 191. What is Meant by Innate Knowledge.--Proof that the Knowledge of God is Innate 194.
  • 2. The Knowledge of God is not due to a Process of Reasoning 199.
  • 3. The Knowledge of God is not due exclusively to Tradition 201.
  • 4. Can the Existence of God be proved 202.


  • 1. Ontological Argument.--As presented by Anselm.--By Des Cartes 204. --By Dr. Samuel Clarke.--By Cousin 206.
  • 2. Cosmological Argument 207. Principle of Sufficient Cause.--Nature of Causation.--Intuitive Conviction of the Necessity of a Cause for every Effect.--The World is an Effect.--Hume's Objection to the Cosmological Argument 211.
  • 3. Teleological Argument 215. Its Nature.--Evidences of Design in the World 217.
  • 4. Objections to the Teleological Argument 227. Denial of Final Causes.--Objections of Hume and Kant 228.
  • 5. The Moral or Anthropological Argument 233. Nature of the Argument.--Argument from the Existence of the Mind.--From the Nature of the Soul.--From the Moral Nature of Man 237.


  • 1. What is Meant by Anti-Theism.--Atheism 241.
  • 2. Polytheism 243.
  • 3. Hylozoism 245.
  • 4. Materialism 246.
  • Doctrine of Epicurus.--
  • Materialism in England during the Eighteenth Century.--
  • Locke.--
  • Hartley.--
  • Priestley.--
  • Materialism in France during the Eighteenth Century.--
  • Positivism 254.
  • Scientific Materialism.--
  • Leading Principles 262.
  • Correlation of Physical and Vital Forces 264.
  • Correlation of Physical and Mental Forces 271.
  • Arguments against Materialism.--
    • 1. Materialism Contradicts the Facts of Consciousness 276.
    • 2. Contradicts the Truths of Reason 280.
    • 3. Inconsistent with the Facts of Experience 282.
    • 4. Materialism Atheistic 284.
    • 5. The Materialistic Argument from Analogy invalid 285. Direct Argument against the Theory of the Correlation of Physical, Vital, and Mental Forces 291.
  • 5. Pantheism.--Its three Principal Forms 299.
  • General Principles of the System 300.
  • History of Pantheism 309.
  • Brahminical Pantheism 309.
  • Original Religion of the Hindoos Pantheistic.--
  • Relation of the Hindoo Pantheism to Polytheism.--
  • Its Effect upon Religion 313.
  • Its Effect upon Social Life 315.
  • Grecian Pantheism.--
  • Ionic School.--
  • Eleatic School 319. Stoics.--
  • Plato's Doctrine 322.
  • Aristotle 326.
  • Medieval Pantheism 328. Neo-Platonists.--John Scotus Erigena.--Modern Pantheism 330.


  • 1. Can God be known 335. State of the Question.--God Inconceivable.--God Incomprehensible.--Our Knowledge of God partial 337. How do we form the idea of God?--Proof that this Method is trustworthy 339 .
  • 2. God cannot be fully known 345. Sir William Hamilton's Argument against the Transcendentalists 346.
  • 3. Sir William Hamilton's Doctrine 349.
  • God an Object of Faith but not of Knowledge.--
  • Different Kinds of Ignorance.--
  • Proof that Sir William Hamilton denies that we can know God.--
  • Arguments Against his Doctrine.--
  • The Unthinkable or Impossible cannot be an object of Faith 352.
  • Knowledge essential to Faith.--Our Knowledge not regulative 355.
  • General Objections to Hamilton's Theory 359.
  • Founded on a Wrong Definition of the Absolute and Infinite; on a Wrong Definition of knowledge.--
  • Necessity of a Supernatural Revelation 364.


  • 1. Definitions of God 366.
  • 2. Divine Attributes 368. Relation of the Attributes to the Essence of God.--The Divine Attributes do not differ merely in our Conceptions 371. The Divine Attributes cannot be resolved into mere Causality.--They differ virtualiter 373.
  • 3. Classification of the Divine Attributes 374.
  • 4. Spirituality of God 376. Consequences of admitting God to be a Spirit. 379.
  • 5. Infinity 380. The Idea of Infinity not merely negative.--The Infinite is not the All.--Infinitude of God in relation to Space 383.
  • 6. Eternity 386. Scriptural Doctrine.--Philosophical View.--Modern Philosophical Views 389.
  • 7. Immutability 390. Philosophical Statement.--The Absolute Attributes of God not inconsistent with Personality 391.
  • 8. Knowledge 393. Its Nature.--Possibility of Knowledge in God precluded by the Pantheistic Theory.--Knowledge and Power are not to be confounded.--The Doctrine of the Scriptures on the Subject.--The Objects of the Divine Knowledge.--The Actual and the Possible.--Scientia Media.--Origin of the Distinction 399. The Objections urged by Augustinians.--Foreknowledge 400. The Wisdom of God 401.
  • 9. The Will of God 402. Meaning of the Term.--Freedom of the Divine Will.--Decretive and Preceptive Will.--Antecedent and Consequent Will.--Absolute and Conditional Will.--The Will of God as the Ground of Moral Obligation 405.
  • 10. The Power of God 406. Origin of the Idea of Power.--Omnipotence.--Negation of Power.--Absolute Power. --Potentia Absoluta and Potentia Ordinata.--Will and Power not to be confounded 410.
  • 11. Holiness of God 413. Grounds on which Moral Attributes are denied to God 414.
  • 12. Justice 416. Meaning of the Word.--Justice in its relation to Sin.--Reformation of the Offender not the Primary Object of Punishment.--The Prevention of Crime not the Primary Object of Punishment.--Proof of the Scriptural Doctrine.-- Philosophical Views of the Nature of Justice 424.
  • 13. The Goodness of God 427. The Scriptural Doctrine.--Benevolence.--Love.--The Existence of Evil.--Theories which involve the Denial of Sin.--Sin regarded as the Necessary Means of the Greatest Good.--The Doctrine that God cannot prevent Sin in a Moral System.--Scriptural Doctrine as to the Origin of Evil 435.
  • 14. The Truth of God 436.
  • 15. Sovereignty of God 439.


  • 1. Preliminary Remarks 442.
  • 2. Biblical Form of the Doctrine 443. What that Form is.--Scriptural Proof of the Doctrine.--Progressive Character of Divine Revelation.--Formula of Baptism.--Apostolic Benediction 448.
  • 3. The Transition Period 448. Necessity for a more Definite Statement of the Doctrine.--Conflict with Error.--Gnostics.--Platonizers.--Origen's Doctrine.--Sabellianism.--Arianism 452.
  • 4. The Church Doctrine as presented by the Council of Nice 458. Objects for which that Council was convened.--Difference of Opinion among the Members of the Council.--Semi-Arians.--Orthodox.--Council of 457.
  • 5. Points decided by the Councils of Nice and Constantinople 459. 1. As against Sabellianism.--2. As against the Arians and the Semi-Arians.--3. The Mutual Relations of the Persons of the Trinity 466.
  • 6. Examination of the Nicene Doctrine 462. Subordination.--Eternal Generation.--Eternal Sonship 471. Objections urged against the Doctrine of Eternal Sonship 474. Relation of the Spirit to the other Persons of the Trinity 477.
  • 7. Philosophical Forms of the Doctrine of the Trinity 478.


  • 1. Testimony of the Old Testament 483. Protevangelium.--Jehovah and the Angel Jehovah.--Evidence contained--1. In the Book of Genesis;
  • 2. In the other Historical Books of the Old Testament;
  • 3. The Book of Psalms.--
  • 4. The Prophetical Books 492.
  • 2. The General Characteristics of the New Testament Teaching concerning Christ 495.
  • 1. The Sense in which Christ is called Lord 495.
  • 2. Christ presented as the Object of our Religious Affections 497.
  • 3. The Relations which Christ hears to his People and to the World.--his Authority as a Teacher.--His Control over all Creatures 501.
  • 4. The Nature of his Promises 502.
  • 5. His Control over Nature 503.
  • 3. Particular Passages in the New Testament which teach the Divinity of Christ 504.
  • 1. The writings of St. John.--John i. 14.--Other Passages in St. John's Gospel.--Our Lord's Last Discourse.--The Epistles of St. John.--The Apocalypse 511.
  • 2. The Epistles of St. Paul.--The Epistle to the Romans.--Corinthians.--Galatians.--Ephesians.--Philippians.--Colossians.--Pastoral Epistles of St. Paul.--The Epistle to the Hebrews.--Other Sacred Writers of the New Testament 520.


  • 1. His Nature 522. His Personality.--Proof of his Personality.--Divinity of the Holy Spirit 527. 2. Office of the Holy Spirit--1. In Nature;
  • 2. In the Work of Redemption.--The Revealer of all Divine Truth.--Applies to Men the Benefits of the Redemption of Christ 532.
  • 3. History of the Doctrine concerning the Holy Spirit 532.


  • 1. The Nature of the Divine Decrees 535. The Glory of God the Final Cause of his Decrees.--Decrees reducible to One Purpose.--The Decrees of God are Immutable.--They are Free.--They are certainly Efficacious.--They relate to all Events.--Free Acts are foreordained 543.
  • 2. Objections to the Doctrine of Divine Decrees 545. 1. Foreordination inconsistent with Free Agency.--
  • 2. Foreordination of Sin inconsistent with Holiness.--
  • 3. The Doctrine of Decrees destroys all Motives to Exertion.--
  • 4. It is Fatalism 548.


  • 1. Different Theories concerning the Origin of the Universe 550.
  • 1. The Purely Physical Theory.--
  • 2. The Theories which assume Intelligence in Nature itself.--
  • 3. Scriptural Doctrine 553.
  • 2. Mediate and Immediate Creation 555.
  • 3. Proof of the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 558.
  • 4. Objections to the Doctrine of a Creation ex nihilo 562.
  • 5. Design of the Creation 565. Scriptural Doctrine as to the Design of the Creation 567 .
  • 6. The Mosaic Account of the Creation 568. Objections to the Mosaic Account of the Creation--Geology and the. Bible 570.


  • 1. Preservation 575. The Nature of Preservation.--Preservation is not a Continued Creation.--Objections to the Doctrine of a Continuous Creation.--Scriptural Doctrine on the Subject 581. 2. Government 581. Statement of the Doctrine.--Proof of the Doctrine..
  • 1. The Evidence of the Operation of Mind everywhere 583.
  • 2. From our Religious Nature 584.
  • 3. From Predictions and Promises 585.
  • 4. From Experience 586. The Scriptural Doctrine 586. The Bible teaches--
  • 1. God's Providence over Nature;
  • 2. Over the Animal World;
  • 3. Over Nations;
  • 4. Over Individuals, over the Free Acts of Men;
  • 5. God's Providence in Relation to Sin 589.
  • 3. Different Theories of the Divine Government 591.
  • 1. The Deistical Theory of God's Relation to the World 591.
  • 2. The Theory of Entire Dependence 592.
  • 3. The Doctrine that there is no Efficiency except in Mind 595.
  • 4. The Theory of Preestablished Harmony 597.
  • 5. The Doctrine of Concursus 598. Remarks on the Doctrine of Concursus 603.
  • 4. The Principles involved in the Scriptural Doctrine of Providence 605. The Providence of God over the Material Universe.--
  • 1. The External World has a real Objective Existence.--
  • 2. Matter is active.--The Laws of Nature.--The Uniformity of the Laws of Nature consistent with the Doctrine of Providence 609. God's Providence in Relation to Vital Processes 610. The Providence of God over Rational Creatures 613. Distinction between the Providential Efficiency of God and the Influences of the Holy Spirit 614.


  • 1. Usage of the Word 617. Definition of a Miracle.--Objections to this Definition 618. Answer to the above Objections 620. The Doctrine of a Higher Law 624. Objections to the Doctrine of a Higher Law 629.
  • 2. Possibility of Miracles 626.
  • 3. Can a Miracle be known as such 629. Lying Wonders.--Insufficiency of Human Testimony 633.
  • 4. The Value of Miracles as a Proof of Divine Revelation 635.


  • 1. Their Nature 637.
  • 2. Their State 639.
  • 3. Their Employments 639.
  • 4. Evil Angels 643. Power and Agency of Evil Spirits.--Demoniacal Possessions 646.

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